150th Anniversary: Kekulé's Benzene Structure

  • DOI: 10.1002/chemv.201500007
  • Author: ChemViews
  • Published Date: 27 January 2015
  • Copyright: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
thumbnail image: 150th Anniversary: Kekulé's Benzene Structure

Friedrich August Kekulé was born on September 7, 1829 in Darmstadt, Germany. He started to study architecture at the University of Gießen, Germany, but after hearing lectures by Justus von Liebig he switched to chemistry. He became Privatdozent at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, in 1856, Full Professor at the University of Ghent, Belgium, in 1858, and returned to Germany in 1867, joining the University of Bonn. He remained there until his retirement. Kekulé died on July 13, 1896.


Kekulé is one of the fathers of chemical structure theory, and best known for assigning a cyclic structure to benzene's C6H6 formula, which is famously said to have come to him in a day dream. At a time with few available methods for structure determination, this had been a considerable challenge. His seminal paper on the topic was published in 1865.


He was one of the first to formalize the idea of chemical valence, especially the tetravalence of carbon. Kekulé's insight into the structure of organic and especially aromatic compounds allowed the field to flourish. Three of his students went on the win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff in 1901 (first Nobel Prize in Chemistry), Hermann Emil Fischer in 1902, and Adolf von Baeyer in 1905.


Friedrich August Kekulé is the answer to Guess the Chemist (37).


Selected Publications

 

Also of Interest

 

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Magazine of Chemistry Europe (16 European Chemical Societies)published by Wiley-VCH