Catalyst-Dependent Cyclization

  • Author: Li Grundl
  • Published: 28 June 2017
  • Copyright: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
  • Source / Publisher: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis/Wiley-VCH
thumbnail image: Catalyst-Dependent Cyclization

The indole skeleton is often found in bioactive molecules. A common method to synthesize multi-substituted indole derivatives is to install the substituents at the C-2 position via transition-metal-catalyzed C-H activation.

Takanori Shibata, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, and colleagues have found that 3-acetyl-N-alkynylindoles (example pictured) undergo a 6-exo-dig cyclization when using [Ir(cod)2]OTf (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) as a catalyst, 2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl (BINAP) as a ligand, and NaOAc as an additive. However, the same starting material gives unexpected 7-endo-dig cyclization products when using [Rh(cod)2][B((3,5-CF3)C6H3)4] as a catalyst and 2,2′-bis(diphenylphosphino)diphenyl ether (DPEPHOS) as a ligand in the absence of any additives. Both reactions were carried out in chlorobenzene at 135 oC.

Preliminary mechanistic studies show that the presence of a carbonyl directing group is necessary. In Ir catalysis, an oxidative addition was the major pathway for C-H bond activation, instead of a concerted metalation deprotonation although a base was used. An intramolecular hydrometalation is involved in both Ir- and Rh-catalyzed reactions and a trans addition in this step led to the 7-endo products in Rh catalysis.


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