Crude Oil Dissolved in Water

  • Author: ChemistryViews.org
  • Published: 24 June 2019
  • Copyright: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
  • Source / Publisher: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry/Springer Nature
thumbnail image: Crude Oil Dissolved in Water

Fuel oil has a complex and poorly studied molecular structure. Due to depleting of light oil reserves, hydrocracking of fuel oil is becoming more important for gasoline production. Hydrocrackers are expensive and special catalysts have to be used. Knowing the precise composition of crude oil would be important to make refining as efficient as possible. However, the extreme complexity of crude oil makes it impossible to separate it into individual compounds and determine their structure by NMR or X-ray spectroscopy.

Isotope exchange combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) can be used. 16O/18O exchange allows enumeration of =O groups and speciation of furans. H/D exchange allows enumeration of –OH groups, –NH groups, aromatic hydrogens, α-hydrogens, etc. Water is the most readily available and the cleanest source of isotopes. However, oil is insoluble in water under normal conditions. Therefore, harsh conditions, such as concentrated acids or bases, are required which can considerably modify the sample's composition.


Yury Kostyukevich and Eugene Nikolaev, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Russian Federation, and colleagues, have developed a cheap and simple approach to analyze the composition of crude oil using H/D and 16O/18O exchange. They used high temperature and pressure to dissolve oil in water. The sample was heated to 360 °C in heavy water at a pressure above 300 atm for one hour. This incubation in near-critical water was monitored by high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS). The team determined the number of exchanges for each molecule simultaneously. They determined the number of 16O/18O exchanges in 276 species and the number of H/D exchanges in 150 species.

The method avoids environmentally hazardous solvents. According to the researchers, the findings might help better understand the composition of crude oil and will contribute to the development of new catalysts for more efficient oil refining. In addition, the method may be used to study other complex nonpolar compounds at the molecular level.


 

Article Views: 585

Sign in Area

Please sign in below

Additional Sign In options

Please note that to comment on an article you must be registered and logged in.
Registration is for free, you may already be registered to receive, e.g., the newsletter. When you register on this website, please ensure you view our terms and conditions. All comments are subject to moderation.

Article Comments - To add a comment please sign in

Bookmark and Share

If you would like to reuse any content, in print or online, from ChemistryViews.org, please contact us first for permission. more


CONNECT:

ChemistryViews.org on Facebook

ChemistryViews.org on Twitter ChemistryViews.org on YouTube ChemistryViews.org on LinkedIn Sign up for our free newsletter


A product of ChemPubSoc Europe (16 European Chemical Societies)and Wiley-VCH