At the Parafield Aquifer Storage, Transfer and Recovery research project in South Australia, a team led by Declan Page, CSIRO Land and Water, Australia, harvested storm water from an urban environment, treated it in a constructed wetland, stored it in an aquifer, and then recovered the treated water via a well.
The storm water exceeded the Australian drinking water guidelines prior to treatment. Small amounts of fecal bacteria, elevated concentrations of iron, and other contaminates were found in the water. After undergoing treatment, the water collected from the aquifer had dramatically lower levels of all hazards. Further supplemental treatment was needed to remove some hazards, though the process shows potential if improvements are made.
- Risk Assessment of Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery with Urban Stormwater for Producing Water of a Potable Quality
D. Page, P. Dillon, J. Vanderzalm, S. Toze, J. Sidhu, K. Barry, K. Levett, S. Kremer, R. Regel,
J. Environ. Qual. 2010, 39(6), 2029-2039.