This person was born in 1913 in New York City, USA. They graduated from high school at the age of 14. After receiving a bachelor´s degree at 17 and a master´s degree one year later, this person worked at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), a forerunner of NASA, in Virginia, USA, in order to save money to finish their doctorate. In 1937 they completed their Ph.D. at Columbia University, New York City, USA.
This person did postdoctoral reseach in the labs of several people who went on to win Nobel Prizes. This included the husband-and-wife team at Washington University in St. Louis, USA, who shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine shortly after this person joined their group in 1946. Despite this, this chemist struggled to find a tenure-track position due to religious and sexual discrimination. Two decades after completing their Ph.D., this person was finally appointed as an associate professor at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA, and was able to start their own, independent research. Two years later, in 1960, this person became a full professor at the same institute. This chemist stayed at the University of Pennsylvania until their retirement in 1982.
This person developed new techniques and instruments to measure how enzymes and other proteins behave in the body, including using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to study adenosine triphosphate (ATP).