SARS-CoV-2 Virus

SARS-CoV-2 Virus


What We Know About the Coronavirus

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causes the current outbreak of the respiratory disease COVID-19. The virus was first detected in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has spread globally by now. The Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA, provides current updates of coronavirus COVID-19 global cases. The World Health Organization (WHO), which declared the rapidly spreading coronavirus outbreak a pandemic in 2020, describes how to protect yourself.

Below, you will find articles that have appeared on ChemistryViews covering the following topics:


Virus Transmission and Protective Measures

Impact of RNA Modifications on SARS-CoV-2 RNA Synthesis

16 February 2023

RNA modifications may be a cause of different symptoms for different individuals toward SARS-CoV-2

How High Are PFAS Levels in Facemasks?

01 April 2022

Study of human exposure and potential impact on landfills of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)

What Are Face Masks Made of?

01 February 2022

We use them all the time, but what are they actually made of? How does the filter effect work?

Wearable Air Sampler For Measuring Exposure to SARS-CoV-2

24 January 2022

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based passive sampler used to collect virus from aerosols and droplets

UV “Light-Barrier” Can Inactivate Infectious Aerosols

12 January 2022

Invisible room divider could curb spread of SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens

Coronavirus-Killing Antiviral Surface Coating

17 August 2021

CodiKoat’s surface coating technology received ISO certification and is said to be the fastest antiviral protection of its kind

SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load Levels and Infectiousness in Different Patient Groups

27 May 2021

Large study of viral loads allows estimations of the effects of age group and disease severity

Copper Nanowire Foams for Reusable Air Filters

03 April 2021

Possible face mask material provides high particulate filtration performance and is easy to clean, reuse, and recycle

What Can Stores Do to Prevent COVID-19 Transmission?

03 March 2021

One-way aisles prevent transmission by close contact; other measures are needed to avoid exposure to aerosols

Aerosol Transmission in Cruise-Ship COVID-19 Outbreak

19 February 2021

Scenarios based on the Diamond Princess outbreak show the importance of airborne transmission

Simulation Shows How SARS-CoV-2 Moves through a Restaurant

12 February 2021

Detailed investigation of known outbreak shows roles of ventilation and air conditioning

How Innate Immunity Influences COVID-19 Viral Load

23 January 2021

Mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics developed

What Makes Some Groups More Vulnerable to COVID-19?

11 December 2020

SARS-CoV-2 infectivity might depend on the host’s redox status

Spread and Mutations of SARS-CoV-2 in Austria Analyzed

25 November 2020

National-scale analysis of COVID-19 superspreading during the first wave of infections in the spring

Cloth Face Masks that Disinfect Themselves in Sunlight

21 November 2020

Functionalized cotton fabrics produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) under light exposure

How COVID-19 Spreads in Meat Processing Plants

08 November 2020

Investigation of outbreak at German meat processing plant shows important factors for virus spread

Heated Face Mask Could Inactivate SARS-CoV-2

Heated Face Mask Could Inactivate SARS-CoV-2

01 November 2020

Researchers aim to build masks with a heated copper mesh

New Model for Droplet Physics Could Inform COVID-19 Guidelines

New Model for Droplet Physics Could Inform COVID-19 Guidelines

29 October 2020

Masks and distancing are helpful, but might not be enough to prevent all contact with the virus

How Far Can Speech-Induced Airflow Carry Viruses?

29 September 2020

Plosive sounds like “p” form air puffs that can transport aerosols over 2 m in 30 s

Simple Method to Test the Efficacy of Face Masks

12 August 2020

Fast, low-cost estimation of droplet retention by different types of masks

How Well Do Face Masks Stop Droplets?

4 July 2020

Simple visualization experiments show effects of mask fit, materials, and layers

Replaceable Filter Membrane for More Efficient Face Masks

26 May 2020

Nanoporous hydrophobic polymer membrane developed

Unrecognized Infection Could Play Mayor Role in Spread of COVID-19
18 March 2020
Model that includes undocumented cases explains rapid growth in the number of infections

How Long Can the SARS-CoV-2 Virus Live on Surfaces and in Aerosols?
14 March 2020
New results on the stability of the virus causing COVID-19


Clever Picture
Coronavirus Entering and Replicating in a Host Cell
3 March 2020
Where the coronavirus comes from and how it infects the human body

How Long Can Coronaviruses Live on Surfaces?
13 February 2020
Literature review finds coronaviruses could persist on hard surfaces for up to nine days, but can be killed with the right disinfectant


Vaccines and Immunity

New Adjuvant for Protein-Based COVID-19 Vaccines

10 September 2022

Analogues of α-galactosylceramide (αGC) significantly boost the immune response

BioNTainer for mRNA Vaccine Production in Africa

21 February 2022

BioNTech introduces turnkey container-based mRNA production facilities

Three Exposures to SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Provide Broad Immunity

09 February 2022

Antibodies with superior neutralization capacity against all variants of concern detected

Effects of a BioNTech/Pfizer Booster after the Sinovac Vaccine Studied

22 January 2022

Immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 delta and omicron variants has been evaluated

EU Authorized Novavax’s Vaccine

21 December 2021

Nuvaxovid™ COVID-19 Vaccine (recombinant, adjuvanted) is the first protein-based COVID-19 vaccine authorized for use in Europe

Antibody Levels Correlate with Vaccine Efficacy

24 November 2021

Data from phase 3 trial of the Moderna vaccine could help to develop measurements for immunity

Use of Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccine in Children

11 November 2021

EMA has started evaluating an application to extend the use of Spikevax to children aged 6 to 11

Immunity from One Coronavirus Could Provide Protection against Others

22 October 2021

Coronavirus vaccines or infections can elicit cross-protective immunity against distinct coronaviruses

Microneedle Patch for DNA-Based COVID-19 Nanovaccines

25 September 2021

Patches can be stored at room temperature and might improve global accessibility

CureVac's Second-Generation mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Shows Promise

CureVac’s Second-Generation mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Shows Promise

18 August 2021

Neutralizing capacity of induced antibodies tested against a range of variants in non-human primates

How Does Early COVID-19 Vaccine Protection Work?

01 August 2021

Robust CD8+ T-cell response only one week after first shot of mRNA vaccine

 Overview of Coronavirus Variants

Clever Picture:
Overview of Coronavirus Variants

06 July 2021

Most mutations of SARS-CoV-2 do not have a noticeable impact on us, but some do – we look at which ones and why

COVID-19 Antibody Responses after Vaccines and Infections

26 June 2021

Antibody levels indicate need for two vaccine doses in those not infected before, single dose for those with past COVID-19, and booster shots for everybody

Mixed Vaccinations Generate Strong Immune Response

23 June 2021

Combination of AstraZeneca vaccine as first dose and BioNTech/Pfizer vaccine as second dose could be beneficial, according to preprint

Novavax's COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate

Novavax’s COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate

15 June 2021

Shows 90 % overall efficacy and 100 % protection against moderate and severe disease in Phase 3 study, according to manufacturer

Lonza and Moderna Collaborate for Drug Substance Manufacturing

08 June 2021

New mRNA production line in the Netherlands will support the manufacture of up to 300 million additional COVID-19 vaccine doses per year

Impurities in AstraZeneca Vaccine Could Be Linked to Adverse Effects

30 May 2021

Vaccine contains process-related protein impurities, according to preprint

Merck Accelerates Scale Up of Lipids for mRNA Covid-19 Vaccines

Merck Accelerates Scale Up of Lipids for mRNA Covid-19 Vaccines

26 May 2021

New, high-purity synthetic cholesterol product launched nine months ahead of schedule

Second-Generation COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate

18 May 2021

CureVac and GSK aim to jointly develop vaccine candidates that offer improved immune responses and target emerging variants

Discussion on Patent Release for COVID-19 Vaccines

07 May 2021

According to industry association, lifting patent protection could discourage entrepreneurs and will not speed up the global supply of vaccines

Clever Picture:
Comparing COVID-19 Vaccines

04 May 2021

Four Covid-19 vaccines have been approved in the EU to date

Ingmar Hoerr, Pioneer of mRNA Technology

04 May 2021

As a Ph.D. student, Hoerr discovered that mRNA can be used as a therapeutic vaccine or agent when administered directly into tissues

Simple Indicator Ensures Ultracold Supply Chain for mRNA Vaccines

04 April 2021

Alerting health care workers to unsafe temperatures during transport

Single Shot of COVID-19 Vaccine Boosts Antibodies in Recovered Patients

27 March 2021

Vaccinating previously infected persons could improve protection against multiple virus variants

First Single-Shot COVID-19 Vaccine

First Single-Shot COVID-19 Vaccine

02 March 2021

Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine receives emergency approval from U.S. FDA

Lipid Production for mRNA-Based Vaccines in Germany

16 February 2021

Evonik is investing in the production of lipids at its Hanau and Dossenheim sites

New BioNTech Plant in Marburg, Germany

10 February 2021

This new BioNTech site will become one of the largest mRNA manufacturing sites in Europe

Next-Generation mRNA Vaccine Against COVID-19

Next-Generation mRNA Vaccine Against COVID-19

5 February 2021

GSK and CureVac start development immediately and plan vaccine availability in 2022

Preliminary Phase 3 Trial Results of the Russian COVID-19 Vaccine Sputnik V

04 February 2021

Interim results show that the vaccine is 91.6 % effective against COVID-19

How Long Does COVID-19 Immunity Last?

27 January 2021

Certain immune responses shown to last at least six months

How Innate Immunity Influences COVID-19 Viral Load

23 January 2021

Mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics developed

Single-Dose COVID-19 Vaccine Works in Mice

16 January 2021

Self-assembling ferritin nanoparticles functionalized with SARS-CoV-2 spikes

Oxford University & AstraZeneka vaccine

A Third COVID-19 Vaccine Looks Very Promising

24 November 2020

AstraZeneca publishes preliminary analysis data from Phase III study

Another Coronavirus Vaccine Candidate Highly Effective

16 November 2020

Phase 3 study of Moderna’s vaccine candidate met statistical criteria with 94.5 % efficacy

Vaccine Candidate More Than 90% Effective in Preventing COVID-19

10 November 2020

Pfizer and BioNTech announce vaccine candidate achieved success in first interim analysis from Phase 3 study

Potent Nanoparticle Vaccine against COVID-19 Designed

05 November 2020

Vaccine candidate produces high levels of virus-neutralizing antibodies in mice

EU Authorities Started Evaluating Data on COVID-19 Vaccines

EU Authorities Started Evaluating Data on COVID-19 Vaccines

07 October 2020

European Medicines Agency (EMA) starts the first rolling reviews of two COVID-19 vaccines in the EU

Herd Immunity Effects on COVID-19 in Hard-Hit Brazilian City

27 September 2020

Population immunity might have played a significant role in determining the size of the epidemic in Manaus

European Union Negotiates with Vaccine Producers

26 August 2020

European Commission expands talks with a fifth vaccine manufacturer

Clever Picture
Searching for a Vaccine

4 August 2020

Picture describes what happens during vaccination and gives a snapshot of which Covid-19 vaccine candidates are in which clinical phases

Pfizer and BioNTech Agree Vaccine Supply with the UK

22 July 2020

30 million doses of mRNA-based vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 expected to be delivered in 2020/2021, subject to regulatory approval or authorization

Preparations for a Covid-19 Vaccine

15 April 2020

Merck supports the Jenner Institute to scale up manufacturing of Covid-19 vaccine candidate


Drugs and Treatments

RNA Therapeutics Block SARS-CoV-2 Replication

31 July 2022

Chemically stabilized ribonucleic acids modified by click chemistry deliver drugs to cells

A Synthetic Ligand for the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein

24 July 2022

α-Helical peptides mimicking parts of receptors could inhibit viral cell entry

Small-Molecule Antiviral Could Be Used in Anti-COVID-19 Nasal Spray

12 April 2022

Compound inhibits entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells

Pfizer’s Candidate for Oral Antiviral Treatment of COVID-19

08 November 2021

PAXLOVID™ (PF-07321332; ritonavir) to significantly reduce the risk of hospitalization or death

Concise Synthesis of Molnupiravir

05 November 2021

Antiviral drug for the treatment of COVID-19

Coronavirus Drug Molnupiravir

05 October 2021

Molnupiravir significantly reduces risk of hospitalization and/or death, according to Merck

Research Highlight: Controlling the Cytokine Storm in COVID-19

05 October 2021

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes cells to stop dividing as a stress response, pointing to a drug target

Sugar-Binding Proteins Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Variants from Invading

18 August 2021

Promising therapeutic intervention against SARS-CoV-2

Membrane-Based ACE2-Rich Nanoparticles against COVID-19

23 March 2021

Cells with high levels of ACE2 receptors used to create SARS-CoV-2 infection blockers

Oral Drug Blocks SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in Ferrets

09 December 2020

Repurposed ribonucleoside analogue inhibitor of influenza viruses

High-Yielding Synthesis of Antiviral Drug Candidate

19 November 2020

Improved preparation of EIDD-2801, currently in clinical trials for COVID-19 treatment

Nanoparticle Decoys Against COVID-19

Nanoparticle Decoys Against COVID-19

11 October 2020

Nanodecoys adsorb viruses and inflammatory cytokines

Targeting Coronavirus Protease Could Have Dual Effect

7 August 2020

Inhibitors of papain-like protease may block SARS-CoV-2 spread and promote immunity

Nucleotide Analogues Could Stop SARS-CoV-2 Replication

10 July 2020

Several compounds that shut down the virus’s polymerase reaction were identified

First COVID-19 Treatment Authorized for the EU

6 July 2020

European Commission Grants Gilead Conditional Marketing Authorization for Veklury® (remdesivir) for the Treatment of COVID-19

Cellular Nanosponges Could Neutralize SARS-CoV-2

25 June 2020

Membranes derived from human cells act as an alternative target for the virus

Human Antibodies Protect against COVID-19 in Animal Study

20 June 2020

Potent neutralizing antibodies found in the blood of recovered patients

Continuous Flow Process for Remdesivir Synthesis

16 June 2020

Improved cyanation reaction as a key step for large-scale synthesis

New Antiviral Drug Candidates Targeting SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease

24 April 2020

Promising inhibitors with high activity and low toxicity

Structure of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease as a Basis for Drug Design
21 March 2020
X-ray structures of promising target lead to improved drug candidate


α-Ketoamides Keep Different Viruses from Multiplying
4 March 2020
New broad-spectrum antivirals against coronaviruses and enteroviruses

Antiviral Drug Shows Promise Against MERS Coronavirus
20 February 2020
The broad-acting drug remdesivir could also be useful against the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19)

Suggesting Potential Drug Candidates for Coronavirus
5 February 2020
Summarizing the current research and suggesting potential drug candidates for treating patients suffering from the 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease



SARS-CoV-2 Nucleic Acid Detection by Naked Eye

February 21, 2023

Nanozyme-based nucleic acid testing is a cost-effective and simple method that can facilitate COVID-19 testing and large-scale screening

Can Dogs Sniff Out Long COVID?

26 June 2022

Detection dogs trained on acute COVID-19 patients also identified Long COVID samples

A Universal DNA Aptamer for SARS-CoV-2 Detection

17 February 2022

Aptamer can recognize the spike proteins of the wild type and current variants of concern

Breathalyzer for COVID-19 Screening

05 February 2022

Handheld, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based device for fast, sensitive testing

Nanofluidic Device for Detecting SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies

28 January 2022

Immunosorbent assay allows rapid and concurrent detection of SARS-CoV-2 and other antibodies

Wastewater Provides Information on the R-Value of SARS-CoV-2

23 December 2021

Low cost, rapid, and independent way to monitor SARS-CoV-2 during the ongoing pandemic

Sensor Can Tell Infectious from Noninfectious Viruses

16 October 2021

Direct detection of human adenovirus or SARS-CoV-2 using aptamer-nanopore sensors

What Are Swabs for Coronavirus Tests Made of?

03 August 2021

Have you ever thought about what swabs are made of and how new research is improving them?

Why Some Patients Keep Testing Positive for SARS-CoV-2

11 May 2021

Reverse-transcribed SARS-CoV-2 RNA can integrate into the genome of cultured human cells

High-Throughput Test for COVID-19 Antibodies

09 May 2021

Microfluidic assay allows performing over 1,000 measurements in parallel using ultralow-volume blood samples

Nanofiber Swabs Could Improve Sensitivity of COVID-19 Tests

31 January 2021

Improved sample collection reduces false negative rate

Pooling Method for High-Throughput COVID-19 Tests

27 August 2020

Increase in testing efficiency leads to higher overall capacity and lower costs

Proof-of-Concept for Faster COVID-19 Test

18 April 2020

Gold nanoislands with DNA receptors used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2

Clever Picture
COVID-19 Specific Testing

7 April 2020

Picture describes how coronavirus testing work

Rapid, Sensitive Test for COVID-19 Developed
22 March 2020
New method over three times faster than previous approaches


Virus Structure and Receptors

Screening the SARS-CoV-2 Proteome

06 October 2022

NMR spectroscopy used to find lead compounds for drug development

How a Protein Inhibits the Replication of SARS-CoV-2

22 December 2021

ZAP (zinc-finger antiviral protein) interferes with ribosomal frameshifting

SARS-CoV-2 Variant Trades Improved Binding for Antibody Evasion

2 May 2021

One of the mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.351 reduces binding to cells, but also to neutralizing antibodies

SARS-CoV-2-Infected Cells Imaged Using Helium Ion Microscopy

6 February 2021

Areas of interaction between cells and virus particles studied

Structure of a Key Coronavirus Protein Determined

14 November 2020

The envelope protein E acts as an ion channel and could be a target for drugs against the SARS-CoV-2 virus

Stabilized Versions of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein

30 July 2020

Improved protein yields and stability could be useful for the development of vaccines and treatments

How SARS-CoV-2 Copies Its Genetic Information

7 May 2020

Structure of replicating coronavirus polymerase solved

Cells in the Nose Could Act as Entry Points for SARS-CoV-2

30 April 2020

Study of the expression of the ACE2 receptor, which allows cellular entry of the virus

Structure of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease as a Basis for Drug Design
21 March 2020
X-ray structures of promising target lead to improved drug candidate


Structure of Coronavirus Receptor on Human Cells Determined
6 March 2020
Cryo-EM structures of full-length human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)

Structure of “Spike” Protein in New Coronavirus Determined
21 February 2020
Results could help to develop a vaccine and antibody treatments


Other Topics

Protein Levels Related to Fertility in Men Affected by COVID-19

08 April 2022

Impact of infection on proteins in semen studied

SARS-CoV-2 RNA Accumulation in Biofilms in Sewers

18 February 2022

Effect could impact the accuracy of wastewater studies

Computational Early Warning System for SARS-CoV-2 Variants

19 January 2022

In-silico approach for the detection of high-risk variants based on immune escape and fitness metrics

Communicating Through Art


Communicating Through Art

06 July 2021

The chemistry undergraduate student experience during the COVID-19 pandemic

SARS-CoV-2 Protease Can Target Human Proteins

11 June 2021

Cleavage of host proteins by viral proteases could be related to COVID-19 symptoms

SARS-CoV-2 Infects Insulin-Producing Cells in the Pancreas

07 June 2021

Death of β cells might explain new cases of diabetes in patients with COVID-19



10 May 2021

An Austrian stamp is printed on real toilet paper using an elaborate process

Studying in the Coronavirus Pandemic

15 February 2021

In the midst of the lockdown, chemistry students talk about their daily study routine

Does Climate Change Contribute to New Bat-Borne Coronaviruses?

14 February 2021

Higher bat diversity leads to higher numbers of coronaviruses locally—likely contributing to both SARS and COVID-19 outbreaks


Online Networking – How Networking Works During Corona

1 December 2020

The best tips from different scientists and their experiences with online meetings

Neanderthal Genes Associated with Higher Risk of Severe COVID-19

Neanderthal Genes Associated with Higher Risk of Severe COVID-19

09 October 2020

Genomic variants inherited from Neanderthals most commonly found in South Asians and Europeans today

The Pandemic Does Not Affect All Researchers Equally

23 July 2020

Scientists with young children, female researchers, and “bench scientists” report the largest declines in research time


A MIDLOCKDOWN NIGHT’S DREAM That Is a Saving Redox Reaction

07 July 2020

2nd Italian Chemical Society’s literary contest gives voice to the young generation during COVID-19

BE LIKE CEZANNE – Upset Paris With an Apple

07 July 2020

2nd Italian Chemical Society’s literary contest gives voice to the young generation during COVID-19


06 July 2020

2nd Italian Chemical Society’s literary contest gives voice to the young generation during COVID-19

Special Science Communication Prize for Virologist Christian Drosten

4 May 2020

Clear, fact-based science communication in the COVID-19 pandemic to the public honored

Experiences of Two Researchers in the COVID-19 Crisis

7 April 2020

Gianluca Giorgi, Italy, and Stefanie Dehnen, Germany, give personal insights into this challenging situation

How to Use Your Computer to Help with Coronavirus Research
1 April 2020
Projects use crowd sourcing and donated computing power for drug discovery

Engineered Cell Line for Coronavirus Isolation
16 March 2020
Modified cell line is highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which makes it useful for studying the virus

Clever Picture
Coronavirus Entering and Replicating in a Host Cell
3 March 2020
Where the coronavirus comes from and how it infects the human body


  • LitCovid
    Curated literature hub for tracking up-to-date scientific information about COVID-19
  • Many publishers and other entities have signed a joint statement to ensure that COVID-19 research findings and data are shared rapidly and openly. Free articles related to the coronavirus from Cambridge University Press, Elsevier, Oxford University Press, Springer Nature, Wiley.
  • Wiley is providing free access to online learning solutions. Instructors without an adopted online learning solution, such as WileyPLUS, Knewton Alta, or zyBooks, can receive free access for their students for the remainder of the Spring 2020 term.
  • What Publishers Are Doing To Help During The Coronavirus Pandemic, Association of American Publishers


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